Production and Sales
of Fluorocarbons

Production, Sales, and Atmospheric Release of Fluorocarbons through 2007

Production

Since 1976, the chemical industry has voluntarily reported the production and sales of fluorocarbons through a survey compiled by independent auditors. The main purpose of the survey was to provide the scientific community with data estimating the atmospheric release of fluorocarbons. Data from reporting companies (see list following this introduction and point 1 in the accompanying Notes) are available through 2004 for CFCs 11, 12, 113, 114 and 115 and through 2007 for HCFCs 22, 124, 141b and 142b and HFCs 134a, 125 and 143a.

The total production of all CFCs reported to AFEAS in 2004 was less than 2% of that in the peak year, 1988, and had fallen to the level of the late 1940s and reporting of the annual CFC data stopped in 2004. Production of HCFCs and HFCs that is not reported to AFEAS, principally in India and China, is estimated now to be about 310,000 tonnes/year and growing at a rate of 15%/year1.

Consequently, the production of HCFCs and HFCs reported to AFEAS has now shrunk to about half of the global total and will fall further. This means that the data no longer have scientific value as indicators of global production (and hence as a source of estimates of global emissions) and their collection will now cease.

2006 Production
(metric tons)
Change between 2006 and 2007
CFC-11 All CFCs are
no longer reported
All CFCs are
no longer reported
CFC-12
CFC-113
CFC-114
CFC-115
HCFC-22 165,862 increased by 384 metric tons (0%)
HCFC-124 2,120 decreased by 14 metric tons (-1%)
HCFC-141b 21,835 decreased by 713 metric tons (-3%)
HCFC-142b 33,779 increased by 11,522 metric tons (+34%)
All HCFCs increased by 11,179 metric tons (+5%)
HFC-134a 158,161 increased by 1,587 metric tons (+1%)
HFC-125 42,573 increased by 4,036 metric tons (+9%)
HFC-143a 18,325 increased by 2,068 metric tons (+11%)
All HFCs increased by 7,691 metric tons (+4%)
Graph of Annual Production of Fluorocarbons Reported to AFEAS (1980-2007)
Note: "Production" (as defined in the Montreal Protocol) does not include feedstock uses.

As shown in the graph, the fluorocarbon alternatives initially grew rapidly after their introduction to replace CFCs but now have varied growth rates, with most levelling off as they become more mature products. Production of HCFCs reported to AFEAS has fallen significantly since 1996. The increase in total HFC production has been modest compared to the decline in CFCs and HCFCs.

Geographical Coverage

The companies surveyed include subsidiaries and joint ventures that have or had CFC, HCFC or HFC production in the following countries: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, European Union, Japan, Mexico, United States and Venezuela (see list following this introduction and point 1 in the accompanying Notes). Production of CFCs by the responding companies has continued to diminish in both absolute and relative terms to the point where, in 2004, CFC data reported to AFEAS amounted to only 16% of the global total estimated from the database maintained by UNEP (the United Nations Environment Programme). Consequently the collection of CFC data from the AFEAS companies ceased in 2004.

In the past, geographical coverage of HCFCs and HFCs in the AFEAS survey has been much greater than for CFCs. In 2004, the last year for which there are UNEP data for individual compounds, AFEAS data accounted for 52% of all non-feedstock HCFC production, and were thought to represent between 85 and 90% of global HFC produc­tion. The following graph illustrates the coverage of AFEAS data relative to the production and consumption reported by UNEP2 for CFCs 11 and 12 and HCFCs 22, 141b and 142b. Values greater than 100% occurred when the UNEP data (which are gathered from national submissions, unaudited) failed to reach the total reported to the AFEAS auditors.

Graph of the ratio of the production reported to AFEAS to the "global" production reported by UNEP

Since 2004, the 15%/year growth in the rate of production of HCFCs in countries that do not report to AFEAS means that this trend has continued almost linearly (so that the production represented by the AFEAS data is about 20 to 30% of the global total).

Furthermore, HFCs are now being made in significant quantities by manufacturers in China that do not report to AFEAS (production capacity there is estimated to be 75,000 tonnes/year for HFC-134a alone).

Reduction in Ozone Depletion Impact

Under the Montreal Protocol, CFC production in the developed world after January 1996 was only permitted in order to supply the basic domestic needs of less-developed countries plus a very small allowance for "essential uses" (mostly for laboratory and pharmaceutical purposes). As illustrated in the following plot, the production of CFCs and HCFCs by AFEAS reporting companies, weighted according to the ozone depletion potential (ODP) of each compound, has been reduced by 99% from the peak year, 1988.

Graph of ODP-Weighted Fluorocarbon Production 1980-2007
NOTES:
  1. Calculated from production reported to AFEAS with ozone depletion potential (ODP) values from "Production and Consumption of Ozone Depleting Substances 1986-1998," UNEP, October 1999. The ODP of HFCs is zero because they do not contain chlorine. Therefore, they do not appear in the above figure.
  2. CFC production was not reported to AFEAS in 2005, 2006 and 2007.

Reduction in Global Warming Impact

Similarly, when reported production is weighted by the global warming potential (GWP) for each compound, the total has declined by about 90% from 1988, the peak year.

Graph of GWP-Weighted Fluorocarbon Production 1980-2007
NOTES:
  1. Calculated from production reported to AFEAS with global warming potentials for a 100-year time horizon from the Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2006 (which contains a homogeneous set of GWP values). [Note: The Kyoto Protocol is based on actual emissions, not production.]
  2. CFC production was not reported to AFEAS in 2005, 2006 and 2007.

Overview of the Fluorocarbon Data

Annual production data for the five CFCs (up to 2004) and production and sales data for the seven other fluorocarbons (to 2007) are presented in the summary tables. Sales are divided into uses categorised as having emissions in the short, medium and long terms, to the best knowledge of the producers. Some degree of geographical breakdown is also provided but the AFEAS survey does not distinguish between Article 5 (developing) countries and non-Article 5 (developed) countries.

Estimates of atmospheric releases of the individual HCFCs and HFCs are provided up to 2007 (with the warning that these are not global data). The emission patterns and release delays applied to HCFCs and HFCs were derived from those developed earlier for CFCs and HCFC-22. However, there have been considerable changes in use practices in the wake of the Montreal Protocol and emission functions are subject to continual review. Revised emission functions, described in McCulloch et al. (2001, 2003 and 2006), were used in calculating the emissions.

The full set of production, sales and emissions data can be downloaded from the AFEAS web site at http://www.afeas.org/data.php. This overview and the graphics are available at http://www.afeas.org/overview.php.

Footnotes

  1. Based on information in: Will R., Global Fluorspar Supply and Demand Trends, SRI Consulting, Industrial Minerals FO7 Conference, Frankfurt, 5-7 Nov 2007.
  2. Source: Task Force on Emissions Discrepancies Report, UNEP Technology and Economic Assessment Panel, October 2006.

Bibliography

Further detail of the data collection and emission estimation procedures and associated uncertainties, and of the geographical distribution of emissions has been published in the papers listed below.

R.L. McCarthy, F.A. Bower and J.P. Jesson The Fluorocarbon-Ozone Theory - I. Production and Release: World Production and Release of CCl3F and CCl2F2 (Fluorocarbons 11 and 12) Through 1975 Atmos. Environ. 11 491-497 1977
P.H. Gamlen, B.C. Lane, P.M. Midgley and J.M. Steed The Production and Release to the Atmosphere of CCl3F and CCl2F2 (Chlorofluorocarbons CFC 11 and CFC 12) Atmos. Environ. 20 1077-1085 1986
D.A. Fisher and P.M. Midgley The Production and Release to the Atmosphere of CFCs 113, 114 & 115 Atmos. Environ. 27A 271-276 1993
P.M. Midgley and D.A. Fisher The Production and Release to the Atmosphere of Chloro­difluoro­methane (HCFC-22) Atmos. Environ. 27A 2215-2223 1993
D.A. Fisher and P.M. Midgley Uncertainties in the Calculation of Atmospheric Releases of Chloro­fluorocarbons J. Geophys. Res. 99 16, 643-16,650 1994
A. McCulloch, P.M. Midgley and D.A. Fisher Distribution of Emissions of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) 11, 12, 113, 114 and 115 Among Reporting and Non-Reporting Countries in 1986 Atmos. Environ. 28 2567-2582 1994
D.A. Fisher, T. Duafala, P.M. Midgley and C. Niemi Production and Emission of CFCs, Halons, and Related Molecules Report on Concentrations, Lifetimes, and Trends of CFCs, Halons, and Related Species NASA Reference Publication 1339 J.A. Kaye, S.A. Penkett and F.M. Ormond 1994
P.M. Midgley and A. McCulloch Estimated National Releases to the Atmosphere of Chloro­difluoromethane (HCFC-22) during 1990 Atmos. Environ. 31 809-811 1997
A. McCulloch and P.M. Midgley Estimated Historic Emissions of Fluorocarbons from the European Union Atmos. Environ. 32 1571-1580 1998
M.A. Aucott, A. McCulloch, T.E. Graedel, G. Kleiman, P.M. Midgley and Y.-F. Li Anthropogenic Emissions of Trichloromethane (Chloroform) and Chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22): Reactive Chlorine Emissions Inventory J. Geophys. Res. 104 (D7) 8405-8415 1999
P.M. Midgley and A. McCulloch Properties and Applications of Industrial Halocarbons International Regulations on Halocarbons and Production, Sales and Emissions of Industrial Halocarbons The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry Vol. 4 Part E: Reactive Halogen Compounds in the Atmosphere 3-540-64090-8 129-153, 155-190, 203-221 P. Fabian and O.N. Singh Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999
A. McCulloch, P. Ashford and P.M. Midgley Historic Emissions of Fluorotrichloromethane (CFC-11) Based on a Market Survey Atmos. Environ. 35 4387-4397 2001
A. McCulloch, P. M. Midgley and P. Ashford Releases of Refrigerant Gases (CFC-12, HCFC-22 and HFC-134a) to the Atmosphere Atmos. Environ. 37(7) 889-902 2003
A. McCulloch, P.M. Midgley and A.A. Lindley Recent Changes in the Production and Global Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22) Atmos. Environ. 40 936-942 2006

Companies Participating in 2007 Survey

Asahi Glass Co., Ltd. (Japan)

Asahi Glass Chemicals America, Inc. (U.S.A.)

Arkema S.A.
(formerly Atofina)

Arkema France (France)
Arkema Espana (Spain)
Arkema North America (U.S.A.)

Daikin Industries, Ltd. (Japan)

Daikin Chemical International Trading (Shanghai) Co. Ltd. (China)

E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Company, Inc. (U.S.A.)

DuPont Argentina (Argentina)
DuPont do Brasil (Brazil)
DuPont Canada Company (Canada)
E.I. DuPont International S.A. (Europe)
DuPont S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)
DuPont de Nemours (Nederland) B.V. (Netherlands)
Mitsui-DuPont Fluorochemicals Co., Ltd. (Japan)

Honeywell (U.S.A.)
(formerly AlliedSignal)

Honeywell Canada, Inc. (Canada)
Honeywell Fluorochemicals Europe BV (Netherlands)

INEOS Fluor Ltd. (UK)
(formerly ICI Klea and ICI-Teijin Co., Ltd.)

Ineos Fluor Limited (UK)
Ineos Fluor America (U.S.A.)
Ineos Fluor Japan (Japan)

Rhodia Organique Fine, Ltd. (U.K.)
(formerly Rhône-Poulenc Chemicals, Ltd.)

Solvay S.A. (Belgium)

Solvay Fluor Iberica S.A. (Spain)
Solvay Fluor GmbH (Germany)
(formerly Kali-Chemie)
Solvay S.A. (France)
Solvay Solexis S.p.A. (Italy)
(formerly Ausimont)

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